History Of Internet Of Things
Coinciding with last World Internet Day, Cisco released its latest report on the role technologies play in creating a more balanced and equitable connected world. In this report, important conclusions were collected, such as the estimate that, in 2023, there will be a quantity close to 24,000 million devices connected to the internet.
While it is true that the figure is below other estimates made in previous years, it is still an overwhelming number that helps us understand the potential of connected things and the technological, business, economic and social paradigm towards which we are heading.
Irremediably, when talking about millions of connected devices, a concept emerges that, due to its characteristics and functionalities, takes on special relevance: the Internet of Things.
Considered as one of the most important technologies of the 21st century, it could be said, in very simple terms, that it is the internet connection of all kinds of physical and everyday objects. However, this is only the simplification of a technology that hides much more and whose effects are being more than remarkable.
Concept Of Internet Of Things
IoT involves the interconnection of objects and all kinds of physical devices that receive and transfer data through wireless networks without the need for human supervision. The fundamental basis of this concept is to integrate into these devices a series of components and sensors designed for a multitude of purposes, which would provide them with the necessary capabilities to collect, send, receive and analyze data in a constant way, forming a feedback cycle.
Thanks to low-cost computing, especially in terms of hardware and sensors, mobile and telecommunications technologies, cloud services, big data and data analytics, the physical objects that, probably until not long ago They were disconnected, today they are able to collect and process data with minimal human intervention, which enables applications of all kinds.
On the other hand, the Internet of Things is generally considered to be an independent technology, although the truth is that its impetus is given, among other factors, by the advances made in many other technologies:
- Low-cost sensors and devices and very low energy requirements, essential for the creation of networks and their maintenance.
- Cloud Computing and, in general, all the integrated services in the cloud that allow companies and users to access a solid and effective technological infrastructure without the need for comprehensive management.
- Edge Computing, similar to the concept of distributed cloud computing, but which brings processes and data storage closer to the location where it is needed, which substantially improves latency and saves bandwidth.
- Advanced connectivity services, with specific network protocols that guarantee fast and efficient data transmission.
- Data science and technologies based on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, which allow companies to make business decisions based on data. The data generated by the Internet of Things itself also feed into these technologies.
On the other hand, it is convenient to differentiate Internet of Things from M2M systems, with which it has certain similarities, but which are based on different concepts. Machine to Machine (M2M), refers to the technology that allows the exchange of data information between machines that are on the same network.
These machines, which can be any electronic device (from an industrial motor to a vending machine) communicate autonomously without the need for human supervision. It is usually a method used for remote inspection and control of the machines themselves and the network environment in which they are located.
However, while this term may resemble that of IoT, they are not synonyms or identical technologies. Both solutions offer different advantages and are designed for specific and specific environments.
Its application varies depending on the protocols used to make the connections, depending on the objects you want to connect, depending on the type of deployment initially proposed and adjusting to the kinds of data that are collected and the use that will be made of them later.
Within the IoT concept itself, it would also be convenient to differentiate between its more generic or common applications, those that are focused on offering services to the final consumer, from those aimed at the industrial sectors. In fact, within this context, IIoT, or Industrial Internet of Things, is often spoken of, due to the weight and importance that this vertical has obtained in recent years.
In industrial environments, the application of the Internet of Things is usually considered as an especially effective solution when it comes to capturing and communicating data in real-time. Additionally, companies often apply IoT to more quickly detect incidents and problems, to save time and costs, and to improve processes.
Improvements in energy efficiency are also often reported, just in time production is made possible and the predictive maintenance of machinery becomes especially relevant.
The new layers of automation that are generated allow not only an improvement in certain processes but the implementation of new business models that were previously not viable. Thanks to smart manufacturing, smart power grids, digitized supply chains or improvements in the field of logistics, new opportunities arise to create and distribute more and better products.
Manufacturing in general, and industries such as automotive, transport and logistics, and the consumer and retail sectors, have seen their capabilities enhanced in recent years thanks to applying IoT solutions in their business processes.